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Water & National Resources in Sudan
2014-04-01 14:20:55

Water & National Resources in Sudan

  The Renaissance Dam In 1904 a study was conducted by the United States Bureau of reclamation. The study identified 26 sites for constructing dams in Ethiopia. The most important site was the current Renaissance Dam project, which located on Alabaly River, the largest river in Ethiopia .  The incoming water was estimated by 25 billion cubic meters, the Dam is situated just about 20 km from the Sudanese border in Bani Shangol Region. In February 2011 the government of Ethiopia declared the start of the construction work of the Renaissance Dam on the Blue Nile for the purpose of ،...

Sudan and the United States of America
2014-02-19 00:00:00

Sudan and the United States of America

Statement of Shirley Christian, Business ManagerFrutarom, Inc., North Bergen, New JerseyTestimony Before the Subcommittee on Tradeof  the House Committee on Ways and MeansHearing on the Use and Effect of Unilateral Trade SanctionsMay 27, 1999Thank you Mr. Chairman and members of the Subcommittee for this opportunity to testify. My name is Shirley Christian. I am pleased to testify today on behalf of Frutarom, Inc. in my capacity as Business Manager of Frutarom Meer’s gum division. Frutarom is a leading processor and supplier of gum arabic in the world, and one of only three processors i،...

Sudan & South Sudan Relations
2014-02-13 00:00:00

Sudan & South Sudan Relations

Comprehensive Peace AgreementMEKELLE AgreementAgreement on Banking Agreement on Border Issues Agreement on Certain Economic MattersAgreement on Post Service Benefits Sudan&South  Agreement on Security Arrangements Agreement on trade Sudan &South Sudan Cooperation AgreementFramework Agreement on the Stuts of Nationals of the State Related Matters ،...

Report of the Committee On Handing over of Projects of Darfur Transitional Authority For the period 2007 – 2011
2014-02-05 00:00:00

Report of the Committee On Handing over of Projects of Darfur Transitional Authority For the period 2007 – 2011

Introduction Like other States of the Sudan, the State of the grate Darfur enjoy a number of development projects in the different fields of development, some of which are financed through the national development budget, such as the Road of Al Ingaaz Al Gharbi (Western salvation road), the Martyr Sabrah Airport, Abu Jabrah railroad, Neiala and El-Obied transport line – Al Foulah, Neiala - Al Fasher. Other projects are funded from States’ development budget, such as the project of water harvest, the project of States internal routes, the project of the Marrah Mountain (Jabal Marrah)- ،...

2014-02-05 00:00:00


Protocol between the Government of Sudan and SPLM/A on the Resolution of Abyei ConflictAbyei Area Referendum ACT 2009How the Abyei experts exceeded their mandate Arbitration Agreement between The Government of Sudan and The Sudan People’s Liberation Movement on Delimiting Abyei Area Agreement Of Temporary Arrangements For Administration And Security Of The Abyie Area.Agreement Between The Government of Sudan And The UN Concerning The Status of The UNISFA . AUHIP Proposals Towards a Resolution of The Issue of AbyeiAUHIP TFA Proposal Final Sudan Legal Note 27.12 LASTThe Republic of Sudan ،...

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Rural Woman Empowerment and her Role in Poverty Reduction Promotion and Present Challenge

  • Background:

    Sudan  enjoys  a  strategic  location  in  the  center  of  the  African  continent.  It  shares
    geographical Location with seven countries of North, East, West and central Africa with
    total land area of 1,882,000 million km square  (250 million hectare).
    Current  estimates  put  the  population  at  excess  of  30,419,625  million  (North  Sudan)  ,
    female 14.796  million  with  annual  growth  rate  estimated  at  2.1  percent  and  population
    density of 46 people per km2 .About 63 percent of the population is rural and 37 percent
    is  urban.  Workforce  in  rural  area  about  36%  out  of  the  total  rural  inhabitance  and  the
    agricultural workforce is estimated at 44% of the total workforce in the rural areas. Most
    of the population derives their livelihoods from that sector in the rural areas. Agriculture
    sector  in  Sudan  plays  an  important  role  in  the  National  Economy  with  an  estimated
    contribution of 45 percent of GDP at the past (before oil discovery) , now its contribution
    is 32.5 percent (2010) with growth rate of 5.5 (2010).  

    Sudanese  women  play  very  important  role  in  economic  development  beside  their
    essential  role  in  the  family,  they  participate  efficiently  in  production  process  and  they
    have high contribution in Sudanese GDP as they represents 49.6% of Sudan population
    (1993 census) and now they represents more than 49.9% (2008 census).  
    International and  regional  developments have  noticeable  impacts on  Sudanese  women
    in public and private sectors as a whole, which is reflected in multiple challenges and
    opportunities to women living in various economic, social and political environments.

    Rural  women  have  noticeable  role  in  social  development  such  as  participating  in  the
    social and rural committees, unions and associations. They resemble efficient elements
    in  agricultural  activities  (plant  and  animal),  more  than  75%  of  the  workers  in
    agricultural  sector  are  women  (1993).    They  participate  in  animal  husbandry  activity
    rearing animals  (sheep, goats,  poultry and  cows) and  participate efficiently  in  keeping
    and reserving food, they monopolies 30% of vegetables and animal processing such as
    drying,  manufacturing  and  fermenting.  Women  in  pastoral  area  constitute  20%  of  the
    workers  and  their  activities  differ  according  to  different  environment  i.e.  women  in
    Baggara  tribe  works  in  tanning  leather,  milk  production,  carpets  made  of  wool  and
    shepherding the young animals, they also participate in grinding grains, manufacturing
    bricks, modified store and handicrafts (local carpets, poultry, seashell and soap).

    Sudanese  Women  leaders  have  a  high  percentage  participation  in  all  international
    associations, seminars,  workshops  and  meetings  in  which  they  made  a  significant  and
    effective attendance in different issues (Arab Leaders wives participated in legislation,
    information,  education  etc.).Women  participation  in  some  activities,  regionally  and
    internationally  is  to  ensure  and  reflect  their  roles  to  the  whole  world  and  to
    communicate with women in other countries, so as to achieve sustainable development

    Women  leaders  have  considerable  efforts  in  achievement  of  sustainable  peace
    especially in the rural areas, based on good governance, equity, justice and democracy
    requires  an  environment  where  every  citizen  has  the  opportunity  to  contribute  to
    decision-making and development. In particular, Sudanese women play a central role in
    their  society,  in  physical  and  psychological  welfare  as  well  as  conflict  prevention  and
    peace building. Rural women have a considerable role in peace and conflict resolution
    as they are the most affected by wars and conflicts.


    Before  Sudan’s  independence,  Sudanese's  women  participated  in  political  movements
    through  visible  and  hidden  societies  such  as  being  a  part  of  the  (Graduates  General
    Congress)  and  acting  as  students,  trade  union  members,  and  voluntary  workers  that
    helped in resistance of the colonial rule. In the Communist Party women participated as
    early  as  1947  since  the  establishment  of  the  part.  The  first  struggle  in  the  Sudanese
    Community  Party  revolved  around  women's  rights.  This  party  is  responsible  for  the
    founding  of  many  popular  organizations,  including  women  and  men  organizations
    equally  without  discrimination.  The  main  achievements  became  visible  after  October
    1964,  when  continuous  efforts  made  by  the  women’s  movement  and  civil  society
    groups  was  reflected  in  tangible  and  empirical  changes  to  the  position  and  status  of
    women  particularly  at  the  public  sphere.  Within  the  Communist  Party  women  were
    seen in all positions at different levels, including the Central committee, and Executive
    Bureau  which  constitute  the  highest  decision  bodies.  Last  election  in  Sudan  ensured
    active participation of women were the women quota system, was enforced by the 2008
    Elections Law, to guarantee the principle of positive discrimination as enshrined in the
    2005 Interim National Constitution.  (25 percent of chairs are provided to women in the
    parliament)  in  Sudan  this  was  considered  a  remarkable  and  historic  achievement  for
    Sudanese  women;  as  the  participation  of  women  in  political  and  decision-making
    processes enhances the promotion of women in general and rural women in particular.  

    2. Rural Development , Agricultural Policies and Strategies addressing needs and
    priorities of rural women

    Many  studies  and  research  found  that  women  represent  principal  partners  in  achieving
    sustainable development  goals.  The  state  of  Sudan has  a  particular  attention  paid  to  the
    commitment  to  achieve  the  Millennium  Development  Goals  (MDGs)  giving  more
    attention to gender aspects as one of the goals defined, and as a facilitating principle for
    achieving  equal  and  just  development.  Many  strategies,  policies,  and  plans  have  been
    lunched  for  women's  development  and  promotion  at  all  levels  (local  and  national)  The
    government  lunched  supportive  strategies  and  polices,  some  of  these  policies  are  as  the

    Amid    of  the  National  Comprehensive  Strategy    (NCS  )  implementation  period  Sudan
    participated  in  Beijing  Conference  and  government  as  commitment  to  the  program  of
    action  set  forth  at  the  conference,  reviewed  the  strategies  formulated  in  its  National
    Strategy “NS” of 1992—2002 in order to accommodate the areas of concern reiterated in
    Beijing Platform of Action.

    National Strategy “NCS” 1992-2002 Policies in the context of women:
        Giving the first priority to women development and recognition of their needs.
        Promoting  the  role  of  women  as  overall  strategy  objectives  to  achieve  justice
    equity and equality.
        Enhancing their participation as a key element to attain sustainable development
    in the society.  
        Empowering  the  role  of  rural  women  as  pre-requisite  for  achieving  political,
    social, economic, and cultural and environment security and peace.