Sudan enjoys a strategic location in the center of the African continent. It shares
geographical Location with seven countries of North, East, West and central Africa with
total land area of 1,882,000 million km square (250 million hectare).
Current estimates put the population at excess of 30,419,625 million (North Sudan) ,
female 14.796 million with annual growth rate estimated at 2.1 percent and population
density of 46 people per km2 .About 63 percent of the population is rural and 37 percent
is urban. Workforce in rural area about 36% out of the total rural inhabitance and the
agricultural workforce is estimated at 44% of the total workforce in the rural areas. Most
of the population derives their livelihoods from that sector in the rural areas. Agriculture
sector in Sudan plays an important role in the National Economy with an estimated
contribution of 45 percent of GDP at the past (before oil discovery) , now its contribution
is 32.5 percent (2010) with growth rate of 5.5 (2010).
Sudanese women play very important role in economic development beside their
essential role in the family, they participate efficiently in production process and they
have high contribution in Sudanese GDP as they represents 49.6% of Sudan population
(1993 census) and now they represents more than 49.9% (2008 census).
International and regional developments have noticeable impacts on Sudanese women
in public and private sectors as a whole, which is reflected in multiple challenges and
opportunities to women living in various economic, social and political environments.
Rural women have noticeable role in social development such as participating in the
social and rural committees, unions and associations. They resemble efficient elements
in agricultural activities (plant and animal), more than 75% of the workers in
agricultural sector are women (1993). They participate in animal husbandry activity
rearing animals (sheep, goats, poultry and cows) and participate efficiently in keeping
and reserving food, they monopolies 30% of vegetables and animal processing such as
drying, manufacturing and fermenting. Women in pastoral area constitute 20% of the
workers and their activities differ according to different environment i.e. women in
Baggara tribe works in tanning leather, milk production, carpets made of wool and
shepherding the young animals, they also participate in grinding grains, manufacturing
bricks, modified store and handicrafts (local carpets, poultry, seashell and soap).
Sudanese Women leaders have a high percentage participation in all international
associations, seminars, workshops and meetings in which they made a significant and
effective attendance in different issues (Arab Leaders wives participated in legislation,
information, education etc.).Women participation in some activities, regionally and
internationally is to ensure and reflect their roles to the whole world and to
communicate with women in other countries, so as to achieve sustainable development
Women leaders have considerable efforts in achievement of sustainable peace
especially in the rural areas, based on good governance, equity, justice and democracy
requires an environment where every citizen has the opportunity to contribute to
decision-making and development. In particular, Sudanese women play a central role in
their society, in physical and psychological welfare as well as conflict prevention and
peace building. Rural women have a considerable role in peace and conflict resolution
as they are the most affected by wars and conflicts.
Before Sudan’s independence, Sudanese's women participated in political movements
through visible and hidden societies such as being a part of the (Graduates General
Congress) and acting as students, trade union members, and voluntary workers that
helped in resistance of the colonial rule. In the Communist Party women participated as
early as 1947 since the establishment of the part. The first struggle in the Sudanese
Community Party revolved around women's rights. This party is responsible for the
founding of many popular organizations, including women and men organizations
equally without discrimination. The main achievements became visible after October
1964, when continuous efforts made by the women’s movement and civil society
groups was reflected in tangible and empirical changes to the position and status of
women particularly at the public sphere. Within the Communist Party women were
seen in all positions at different levels, including the Central committee, and Executive
Bureau which constitute the highest decision bodies. Last election in Sudan ensured
active participation of women were the women quota system, was enforced by the 2008
Elections Law, to guarantee the principle of positive discrimination as enshrined in the
2005 Interim National Constitution. (25 percent of chairs are provided to women in the
parliament) in Sudan this was considered a remarkable and historic achievement for
Sudanese women; as the participation of women in political and decision-making
processes enhances the promotion of women in general and rural women in particular.
2. Rural Development , Agricultural Policies and Strategies addressing needs and
priorities of rural women
Many studies and research found that women represent principal partners in achieving
sustainable development goals. The state of Sudan has a particular attention paid to the
commitment to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) giving more
attention to gender aspects as one of the goals defined, and as a facilitating principle for
achieving equal and just development. Many strategies, policies, and plans have been
lunched for women's development and promotion at all levels (local and national) The
government lunched supportive strategies and polices, some of these policies are as the
2-1.THE NATIONAL COMPREHENSIVE STRATEGY “NCS” 1992-2002:
Amid of the National Comprehensive Strategy (NCS ) implementation period Sudan
participated in Beijing Conference and government as commitment to the program of
action set forth at the conference, reviewed the strategies formulated in its National
Strategy “NS” of 1992—2002 in order to accommodate the areas of concern reiterated in
Beijing Platform of Action.
National Strategy “NCS” 1992-2002 Policies in the context of women:
Giving the first priority to women development and recognition of their needs.
Promoting the role of women as overall strategy objectives to achieve justice
equity and equality.
Enhancing their participation as a key element to attain sustainable development
in the society.
Empowering the role of rural women as pre-requisite for achieving political,
social, economic, and cultural and environment security and peace.
2-2. SPECIAL STRATEGY FOR WOMEN SECTOR