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Water & National Resources in Sudan
2014-04-01 14:20:55

Water & National Resources in Sudan

  The Renaissance Dam In 1904 a study was conducted by the United States Bureau of reclamation. The study identified 26 sites for constructing dams in Ethiopia. The most important site was the current Renaissance Dam project, which located on Alabaly River, the largest river in Ethiopia .  The incoming water was estimated by 25 billion cubic meters, the Dam is situated just about 20 km from the Sudanese border in Bani Shangol Region. In February 2011 the government of Ethiopia declared the start of the construction work of the Renaissance Dam on the Blue Nile for the purpose of ،...

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Sudan and the United States of America
2014-02-19 00:00:00

Sudan and the United States of America

Statement of Shirley Christian, Business ManagerFrutarom, Inc., North Bergen, New JerseyTestimony Before the Subcommittee on Tradeof  the House Committee on Ways and MeansHearing on the Use and Effect of Unilateral Trade SanctionsMay 27, 1999Thank you Mr. Chairman and members of the Subcommittee for this opportunity to testify. My name is Shirley Christian. I am pleased to testify today on behalf of Frutarom, Inc. in my capacity as Business Manager of Frutarom Meer’s gum division. Frutarom is a leading processor and supplier of gum arabic in the world, and one of only three processors i،...

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Sudan & South Sudan Relations
2014-02-13 00:00:00

Sudan & South Sudan Relations

Comprehensive Peace AgreementMEKELLE AgreementAgreement on Banking Agreement on Border Issues Agreement on Certain Economic MattersAgreement on Post Service Benefits Sudan&South  Agreement on Security Arrangements Agreement on trade Sudan &South Sudan Cooperation AgreementFramework Agreement on the Stuts of Nationals of the State Related Matters ،...

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Report of the Committee On Handing over of Projects of Darfur Transitional Authority For the period 2007 – 2011
2014-02-05 00:00:00

Report of the Committee On Handing over of Projects of Darfur Transitional Authority For the period 2007 – 2011

Introduction Like other States of the Sudan, the State of the grate Darfur enjoy a number of development projects in the different fields of development, some of which are financed through the national development budget, such as the Road of Al Ingaaz Al Gharbi (Western salvation road), the Martyr Sabrah Airport, Abu Jabrah railroad, Neiala and El-Obied transport line – Al Foulah, Neiala - Al Fasher. Other projects are funded from States’ development budget, such as the project of water harvest, the project of States internal routes, the project of the Marrah Mountain (Jabal Marrah)- ،...

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Abyei
2014-02-05 00:00:00

Abyei

Protocol between the Government of Sudan and SPLM/A on the Resolution of Abyei ConflictAbyei Area Referendum ACT 2009How the Abyei experts exceeded their mandate Arbitration Agreement between The Government of Sudan and The Sudan People’s Liberation Movement on Delimiting Abyei Area Agreement Of Temporary Arrangements For Administration And Security Of The Abyie Area.Agreement Between The Government of Sudan And The UN Concerning The Status of The UNISFA . AUHIP Proposals Towards a Resolution of The Issue of AbyeiAUHIP TFA Proposal Final Sudan Legal Note 27.12 LASTThe Republic of Sudan ،...

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Home » Issues » Enviroment

Environment in Sudan at a Glance

  • Environment in Sudan at a Glance

      Sudan’s Ministry of Foreign paid attention to the environmental issues at all levels locally, regionally and internationally such serious consideration reflected in the establishment of specialized Department for the environmental affair. The challenges of the environment and its impacts are serious, and increasingly complex.Sudan believes that the environmental issues should be treated through concerted efforts of the international community to save our planet and ensure benefits for current and future generations.A new concept has emerged linking closely the climate change impacts and the spread of armed conflicts which affect negatively on international peace and security.Darfur conflict is a good example of this close link between climate change impacts and armed conflicts where climate change impacts represented in desertification, drought and water shortages leaded the region to the armed conflict. Such environmental degradation and its respective root causes to the conflict in the region have been adequately outlined in the United Nations Environment Report entitled: Sudan Post Conflict Environmental Assessment Report.
    • Terms of reference of the Department of Environment:
      1- Follow the environmental issues on the regional and international levels.2- Raise funds and technical support from the relative organizations and donor countries in order to meet the Sudan’s environmental obligations according to the regional and international conventions, agreements and protocols.
    • Competent authorities and stakeholders:
      To achieve its ultimate goals and objectives, the department cooperates and coordinates with the following authorities:1-Ministry of Environment, Forestry and physical Development2-Higher Council for Environment and Natural Resources3-Sudan Meteorological Authority4-National Council for Physical Development5-Ministry of Industry6-Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation7-Ministry of Water Resources and Electricity8-Ministry of Mining9-Other Research Centers and Civil society Organizations working in the field of Environment.
    • Membership to Multilateral and Regional Environmental Agreements:
      1-Convention Relative to the Preservation of Fauna and Flora in Their Natural Condition.2-International Convention on the Conservation of Plants3-Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere in the Outer Space and Under Water.4-Agreement for the Establishment of Commission for Controlling the Locust in the Near East.5-African Convention on the Conservation of Natural Resources6-Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially As Waterfowl Habitat.7-Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Culture and Natural Heritage8-Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.(CITES)9-Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species Wild Animals.10-United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.11-Regional Convention for the Conservation of the Red Sea and Gulf of Eden.12-Protocol Concerning Regional Cooperation in Combating Pollution By Oil and Other Harmful Substances In the Red Sea.13-Vienna Convention for the Protection of Ozone Layer14-Convention on Early Notification on Nuclear Accidents.15-Monteral Protocol on Substances that Deplete Ozone Layer.16-Basel Convention on the Control of the Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes.17-Bamako Convention on the Ban of the Import into Africa and the Control of the Transboundary Movement and Management of the Hazardous Wastes.18-Nile Basin Initiative19-United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).20-International Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).21-International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification Particularly in Africa (CCD).22-Kyoto Protocol (KP)23-International Legally Binding Instrument for the Application of the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides In International Trade.24-Cartagena Protocol on Bio safety to the Convention on Biological Diversity.25-Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants.
    • National Environmental Projects Implemented:
      Being the national focal point for many MEAs, the Higher Council for Environment and Natural Resources in coordination and cooperation with the relevant national authorities and international organizations has undertaken following projects:1-First National Communication for Climate Change2-National Adaptation Programmes of Actions3-Follow up of options to adaptation4-Adaptations to climate change (water, agricultural and health sectors).5-Protection of Ozone Layer6-National Plan for Organic Pollutants7-Strategic Approach for Chemical resources Management8-Biodiversity9-Second National Communication for Climate Change.10-Assessment of Rio Conventions
    • Other projects under implementation:
      1-National Plan of adaptation to Climate Change2-Second project for Biodiversity3-Organic Pollutants4-Carbon Strategy.
    • Sudan،s record in the field of environment regionally and globally:
      1- The chairmanship of the Group of 77 and China in 2009 especially in climate change negotiations which implied a critical period in the history of climate change negotiations.The effective and transparent leadership of the Sudan to the group has resulted in maintaining the group interests and positions in such negotiations.2- Sudan is currently chairing the UNEP”S Governing council in its new universal format for the period 2013-2015.3- Sudan has been elected as a chair of the African Group in Climate Change Negotiations in the Conference of Parties which took place in Warsaw ,Poland during the period 11- 22 November 2013 to carry out the following responsibilities :*Representing the group and delivering the group’s statements particularly in the plenary sessions besides the preparation of draft statements.*Managing the participation process of the Group in the negotiations through the appointment of coordinators to all issues under discussions and organization of the meetings.*leading the meetings with other groups to coordinate positions.
    • Climatic patterns in Sudan:
      The tropical climate is prevailing in Sudan, which is characterized by high level of temperature in most days of the year, and very dry in the far north. Temperature reachs maximum levels in summer (March-July) and the daily average during May and June reach more than 42.9 degrees Celsius in northern Sudan. In autumn temperature drops in July and December, at 5-10 degrees Celsius because of rain. However in Winter, (November-March) temperature drops to the lowest rates in December and February when the daily average temperature reaches 15 degrees Celsius.Intermittent Rain and frequent drought cycles, which varies in length and intensity, represent significant features of climate in Sudan.The most severe drought cycles have occurred during 1968-1974 and 1983-1985 which left environmental, social and economic negative impacts.
    • Surface and soil:
      The Sudan’s territory is a plain, sedimentary and extrovert with few Heights covered less than 0.5% of the total area.the most important heights are Jebel Marra in Darfur, the hills of the Red Sea in the east, the Nuba Mountains in South Kordofan and the mountains Meidob in Darfur. While the River Nile represents the most important phenomenon of geography in Sudan, the river basin covers about 67.4% of the total area of Sudan.Sudan plains composed of different types of soils including:Sandy soils in the desert and semi-desert regions in the north and the western Sudan:A fragile, infertile soil used for the cultivation of millet, groundnuts, sesame also provides pasture important for cattle, sheep and goats.
    • Clay soil in central and eastern Sudan:
      It represents the most important areas of rain fed mechanized agriculture where the cultivation of cotton and corn production is prevailing besides it implies an important source of forest products, especially Arabic gum.Celtic sedimentary soils on the banks of rivers, valleys and Tokar and Gash Delta:Featuring very fertile and of an annual renewal soils.Fertile volcanic soil in the Jebel Marra:Where the cultivation of fruits and cotton is dominant.The arable land in Sudan is estimated to about 200 million acres (84 million hectares), the exploited part about 40 million acres (20%), including 4 million acres by Permanent irrigation (Merowe) and 29 million acres by rain fed agriculture.
    • Wildlife:
      Sudan is very rich by wild livestock, which vary in races and classes due to diversed ecological environments from the desert until the rich savannah, among thirteen species of mammals found in Africa, twelve species do exist in Sudan, that include a large number of families and species, mainly elephants, buffalos, giraffes, rhinoceros, and deers besides monkeys and predators like lions and hyenas and others. Sudan also has nearly a thousand species of birds and an unknown number of reptiles and insects, especially in El Dindir.The average emissions of carbon dioxide:(0.3 tons per capita).Environmental threats:Desertification, drought, soil cliff and deforestation (Wood).
    • Nature Reserves:
      there are eight reserves in Sudan which comprises rare animals, birds and coral reefs, they are, (El Dindir, Alrdom, Wadi Hor, Jabel Aldiyar, Jibal El Hassaniya, Dongunab, Sungneib, and Rayat Basendah).Land use:Area of arable land: 200 million acresarea of exploited land: 20% (40 million acres).Main crops: corn, millet, wheat, cotton and peanutsOther crops: sugar cane, dates, citrus, sunflower and maizeIrrigated area: 11 million acresForest area: 11.6% of the countrygreen space per capita in Acre: 1:68.1 mAverage tree density in acre: 200/500