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Environment in Sudan at a Glance
2014-02-02 00:00:00

Environment in Sudan at a Glance

Sudan’s Ministry of Foreign paid attention to the environmental issues at all levels locally, regionally and internationally such serious consideration reflected in the establishment of specialized Department for the environmental affair. The challenges of the environment and its impacts are serious, and increasingly complex.Sudan believes that the environmental issues should be treated through concerted efforts of the international community to save our planet and ensure benefits for current and future generations.A new concept has emerged linking closely the climate change impacts and the ،...

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     Rural Woman Empowerment and her Role in Poverty Reduction  Promotion and Present Challenge
2014-02-03 00:00:00

Rural Woman Empowerment and her Role in Poverty Reduction Promotion and Present Challenge

Background: Sudan  enjoys  a  strategic  location  in  the  center  of  the  African  continent.  It  shares geographical Location with seven countries of North, East, West and central Africa with total land area of 1,882,000 million km square  (250 million hectare). Current  estimates  put  the  population  at  excess  of  30,419,625  million  (North  Sudan)  , female 14.796  million  with  annual  growth  rate  estimated  at ،...

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Women Empowerment   Policy
2014-02-03 00:00:00

Women Empowerment Policy

Introducti          In the context of the aspirations of the Sudan, in light of current processes of  transformation  currently  underway  in the  Sudan,  and  in consideration  the  significant  contribution  to  the  social  and  economic development  of  the  Sudan  by  Sudanese  women  in  recent  decades; there is a better understanding of the concept of empowering women within  a  framework  of  realizing ،...

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Two Areas
2014-02-04 00:00:00

Two Areas

   A Tale of Two States The Agreement on South Kordofan and Blue Nile States and the Path of Implementation and the Recent Security DevelopmentsThis paper aims to clarify and illustrate the situation of Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states in the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, from its inclusion in the agreement up to the current situation. We have summarized the agreement in the points below. The entire agreement is published and available for those who wish to obtain further details. Important points in the Agreement- Negotiations with the SPLM covered the two states, although th،...

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Abyei
2014-02-05 00:00:00

Abyei

Protocol between the Government of Sudan and SPLM/A on the Resolution of Abyei ConflictAbyei Area Referendum ACT 2009How the Abyei experts exceeded their mandate Arbitration Agreement between The Government of Sudan and The Sudan People’s Liberation Movement on Delimiting Abyei Area Agreement Of Temporary Arrangements For Administration And Security Of The Abyie Area.Agreement Between The Government of Sudan And The UN Concerning The Status of The UNISFA . AUHIP Proposals Towards a Resolution of The Issue of AbyeiAUHIP TFA Proposal Final Sudan Legal Note 27.12 LASTThe Republic of Sudan ،...

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Home » About Sudan » National Era

Sudan & National Governments

    • National Rule
      The first post-independence government consisted of a five-member Sovereignty Council, a prime minister, and a national parliament containing a strong opposition presence. However, it did not enjoy much stability: general elections were convened in 1958 – just two years after independence. The Umma Party won the majority of seats in the polls. The way it ran the affairs of the country and its political practices, however, generated overwhelming popular resentment against the Umma Party’s performance. The political arena also became sullied by debilitating divisions within and between the various political parties, culminating in Prime Minister Abdallah Khalil handing over the reigns of power to the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, Lieutenant-General Ibrahim Abboud.
    • The Tenure of General Abboud (1958 -1964)
      General Abboud headed the first military government in Sudan. The general issued a decree dissolving all political parties. Just as controversially, General Abboud oversaw the deportation of the people of ‘Old’ Halfa to make way for the construction of the High Aswan Dam reservoir; he also signed the Nile Water Agreement of 1959 with Egypt. Crucially, the general’s term in office witnessed escalation of the war in south Sudan, too, which began to take on ever more complicated dimensions. In this maelstrom, the Abboud government was toppled by a popular uprising on 21st October, 1964. This, in turn, propelled to power a short-lived (nine months) transitional government under the stewardship of Sir Al-Khatim Al-Khalifa. By the end of the tenure of Khalifa`s government, general elections were staged that produced a government; however, this, too, was soon toppled, triggering yet another spiral of political instability.Throughout the immediate independence period, there has been a furious debate about the appropriate constitution for Sudan and its unique characteristics, which have included strong calls for adopting an Islamic constitution. During that period the highest voice was that of the Communist and the Muslim Brotherhood organizations as they were the most organized entities.The war in southern Sudan dragged on continuously. The first prelude to overt foreign intervention in the conflict emerged during the Khartoum Round Table Conference in 1960: its most significant outcome was a recommendation to give southern Sudan regional rule. Another proposal from the conference called on giving southern Sudanese the right by referendum to decide between a federated, largely autonomous, system of governance or staying unified with northern Sudan as is. A committee was formed to follow-up on these two key recommendations. However, the committee failed to answer vital questions relating to the constitutional status of south Sudan.Concurrently, this period also witnessed one of the most significant political achievements in the world: the election of Fatima Ahmed Ibrahim as the first-ever female parliamentarian in Africa and the Middle East.General elections were convened in 1968 that failed to give any party a plurality of seats in parliament. The resulting coalition government proved very brittle, laboring to respond to the aspirations of the people. With the continuation of partisan ‘zero-sum game’ politics, the army stepped into the political arena for the second time and staged a military coup on May 25th, 1969, led by Colonel Jafar Nimeiri.
    • Nimeiri’s Rule (1969-1985)
      The Communist Party backed Nimeiri’s coup, with many representatives from its military wing becoming members of the Revolutionary Command Council, the country’s executive .However, they soon fell into marked disagreement with Nimeiri who, in turn, immediately sought to free himself from their shackles. This turbulent state of affairs prompted the Communist Party to use its die-hard supporters within the Revolutionary Command Council to mount a bloody counter-coup, led by Major Hashim Al-Atta. The coup troops managed to arrest Nimeiri. But he escaped with the help of several of his loyalist officers and, concurrently, led a counter coup against the Communist insurgents, underpinned by backing from regional allies in Egypt and Libya, and some Western countries fretting about Soviet expansion in the region. Nimeiri executed both the coup leaders and leading lights of the (civilian) Communist Party. Nimeiri, thereafter, remained in power for a further sixteen years, during which (in 1977) he reconciled with the Libyan-based armed opposition coalition comprised of the Umma Party, the Democratic Unionist Party, and the Muslim Brotherhood organization.A long period of Nimeiri’s rule witnessed unprecedented political stability and economic development activity throughout Sudan, helped no end by his clinching of the Addis Ababa Agreement in 1972 that ended war between Khartoum and rebels in south Sudan. Nimeiri recognized the attrition of the country’s resources and general exhaustion of the economy caused by the war. Pursuant to this agreement, south Sudan became an autonomous region, albeit with the central government in Khartoum maintaining control over defense, foreign policy and other key sovereignty matters.The Dinka tribe dominated the fledgling political structures of the newly autonomous south Sudan region, stoking resentment amongst other southern tribes. This boiled over to put pressure on Nimeiri, who, in turn, responded to advice from former (south Sudan) Anyana rebel movement leader, General Joseph Lago, ( later to become Nimeiri’s national vice-president) to divide south Sudan into three regions. This division, allied to still woeful living conditions throughout south Sudan, angered the Dinka tribes: they launched another rebellion under the name of Anyana-2, which, after designating Dr. John Garang as its leader, changed its name to the Sudan Peoples’ Liberation Movement (SPLM) in 1983. In late 1983, Nimeiri announced the enforcement of the Islamic Sharia law throughout Sudan. The Iranian Revolution had already erupted in 1979. The enforcement of Sharia law outraged Nimeiri’s allies, notably the USA, and aroused the concerns of Sudan’s immediate neighbors. Much international pressure was heaped on Nimeiri to abolish Sharia; but he did not yield straight away. Eventually, however, Nimeiri finally succumbed, his hands forced by the relentless deterioration of popular living standards throughout Sudan. Many of Nimeiri’s former Islamist allies, whose ideology had gained lots of traction amongst Sudanese youth, were thrown into jail. An army-backed, popular uprising - the second of its kind in Sudan – erupted finally on 6th April, 1985, and deposed Nimeiri from office.
    • Interim Period
      The army, under the command of Marshal Suwar Al-Dahab, took the sides of the masses and removed Nimeiri from power. After one year at the helm as head of the executive Revolutionary Command Council, Marshal Suwar Al-Dahab stepped down voluntarily (itself a very rare occurrence then in the region), paving the way for pluralistic general elections in 1986.The elected government was a coalition, headed by Sadiq Al-Mahdi, leader of the Umma Party. His government lasted for three years, beset by chronic political instability that led the fragile government to collapse twice. Relentless war with the SPLM in south Sudan weighed heavily on economic and popular living conditions throughout Sudan. With the economy in dire straits, Al-Mahdi solicited an agreement with SPLM leader Dr. Garang to end the war. However, his efforts and those of the Democratic Unionist Party leader, Mohammad Osman Al-Mirghani, to broker a peace with the SPLM proved all in vain. Indeed, SPLM forces continued their advance, reaching some regions even in northern Sudan. Angered and dismayed by its poor armaments at a time of war and general neglect, the Sudan Armed Forces toppled the Government of Sadiq Al-Mahdi.
    • National Salvation
      For the third time in the history of Sudan, the army, this time under the command of Lieutenant General Omar Hassan Ahmad Al-Bashir, had intervened to topple a civilian government on June 30th, 1989. The country fell under the temporary governorship of an interim military council, named the National Salvation Government. Economic, personal security and military conditions throughout Sudan were all hit rock bottom; in other words, the Sudanese populace welcomed generally the army coup, the military council, and its young leader. The same welcoming reaction to the coup was also forthcoming from Sudan’s neighbors, notably from Egypt’s President, Hosni Mubarak. However, following the revelation of the Islamist orientation of Lieutenant General Al-Bashir and some other members of the council declaring the re-enforcement of Sharia law, sweeping international isolation was imposed against Khartoum. Isolation moved in tandem with the escalation of the war in south Sudan and the feting of the SPLM and its leader, Dr. Garang, in countless regional and international forums. Indeed, the SPLM solicited and received backing from successive governments in the USA, under a professed strategy of toppling the government in Khartoum with help from Sudan’s neighbors. In the face of these twin macro threats, the government declared Jihad. Sudanese youth of all hues hurried quickly to support the army, and managed to beat-back southern rebel troops that had been bearing down on some areas in northern Sudan. The government laid emphasis on improving economic performance through national self-reliance. Consequently, Sudan succeeded in extracting oil, raising its annual economic growth rates, and contracting and building a fruitful strategic economic alliance with China, Malaysia, and other Asian countries and, in turn, away from the hegemony of Western nations. Sudan’s steadfastness in the face of a debilitating economic embargo forced the southern rebels to accept several rounds of negotiation eventually aimed at stopping the war. The political performance of the Islamist-oriented Salvation Government matured, too: it changed from revolutionary to constitutional legitimacy in 1998. This change had been preceded by the formation of the National Congress Party (NCP), a broad-based alliance of several political and social components of Sudanese life. Political activity was gradually reinstated. Concurrently, an opposition alliance was formed under the auspices of some neighboring countries - Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Libya, and (later on) Uganda. This so-called National Democratic Alliance for the Liberation of Sudan comprised, besides SPLM, the Umma Party and Democratic Unionist Party, and some leftist parties. The alliance signed the Asmara Agreement of 1995, recognizing the right to self-determination for southern Sudan. In the wake of this agreement, SPLM expanded the scope of war ever closer to Sudan’s eastern borders with Ethiopia and Eritrea; it also heralded the start of SPLM’s alliance with selected Darfur rebel movements.Political parties were allowed to resume their activities, elections were held, and a presidential system of governance was adopted for ruling Sudan. Prior to then, federalism had been chosen in 1990 as a mode of governance, albeit de facto enforced only in 1994.At the start of the current millennium, a trend advocating the cessation of war in south Sudan gained prominence within the ruling National Congress Party. It called for settling peace quickly in view of the vast material and human resources that had been hemorrhaging continuously from Sudan since war in southern Sudan had erupted in 1955. Accordingly, the first round of peace negotiations with SPLM started to gain serious traction in 2002 with the signing of the Machakos Protocol under the auspices of the international community. It recognized the right of south Sudan’s people’s to self-determination against the enforcement of Sharia law that had prevailed elsewhere throughout Sudan. Negotiations between the central government in Khartoum and SPLM continued, culminating in the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in Naivasha, Kenya, during January 2005. Under the terms of the CPA, the SPLM became a key partner in the governing of Sudan. Following a six-year transitional period, a referendum was held to allow the people of southern Sudan to decide either for keeping unity with the rest of Sudan or separating and forming an independent state. On January 23rd, 2011, southern Sudanese opted for the choice of separation. The federal government recognized the result of the referendum unambiguously. It welcomed the opportunity for southern Sudanese to express a decision that constituted clearly a quest for peace shared by virtually all Sudanese. The southern referendum outcome also put the federal government in an ideal environment to accelerate its quest for sustainable peace and economic development throughout Sudan, and divert all the resources that were lost on war to boosting the welfare of citizens in both Sudan and the soon-to-be Republic of South Sudan.The 9th of July 2011 stands as a land mark in the history of Sudan as it was the moment when the seeds of the second republic of Sudan was planted with the people of Sudan, with its leaders aspiring for it to herald the beginning of a new era hallmarked by sustained economic and political stability, security, prosperity, balanced development, and good governance.